Purpose of Ngati Whakaue Tribal Lands Incorporation

Proud son of a proud nation
Pillar that upholds the heavens
You that allows the sun to shine
You that causes peace to reign on earth

These are phrases used to describe chiefs such as Whakaue Kaipapa, a descendant of the noble lines of chiefs who brought the canoe Te Arawa from the homeland of their forebears, of Houmaitawhiti and others, who encouraged his relations to “find a place where they may die a peaceful death”.

Tamatekapua and his compatriots heeded the words of Houmaitawhiti when they left far distant Hawaiki, and although they descended for a time into the throat of the Parata, and were subjected to the anger of Ngatoroirangi, Te Arawa landed safely at Maketu. The children of Tamatekapua were sent to scout the land and seek an appropriate place for them to live, and so Kahumatamomoe and Ihenga arrived in the interior of the stomach of the great fish of Maui. They named the mountains, the rivers, and the lakes from  Maketu to Tongariro.

By the time of Whakaue, his father Uenukukopako had taken control of Te Motutapu a Tinirau (Mokoia). He wanted to erect a pa (fortified village) on Mokoia, and also others around the shores of Lake Rotorua nui a Kahumatamomoe. When his son Tutanekai arrived, he had already built a pa at Weriweri. It was Tutanekai who raised his people to become the tribal force known as Ngati Whakaue.

Before the sacking of Mokoia, Ngati Whakaue had gained control over Pukeroa and Ohinemutu, and still held those areas when these issues were contested by different tribal groups before the land court of the day.

The beginnings of Whakaue Kaipapa, like the multi dimensions of his offspring, are not bound to the mere physicality of the natural world, nor are they  limited to Aotearoa.

They extend across the expanses of Te Moana nui a Kiwa within and without the spiritual and metaphysical domains of Tangaroa and Hinemoana; Ranginui and Papatuanuku.

The patere that follows explores the dynamics of existence and identity which have evolved from the time of Houmaitawhiti, the forebear of Whakaue and resident of distant Hawaiki. This dynamism lingers in the present day generations with a pointer to futures untold signified in the concluding melody. The patere records the patterns and lessons that have been outlined and embedded within the psyche of the many generations that have followed Houmaitawhiti. These patterns are evident and prevalent in the descendants of Whakaue, in the Whakaue of today and the Whakaue of the future.

The waiata commences with a reminder that out of a concern to avoid overcrowding in Rangiatea a monumentous decision to settle elsewhere in the Pacific was made. This concern, coupled with the cumulative knowledge of the abundance of far off places gleaned from the voyages of Kupe and others, catapulted Tamatekapua to fashion an expedition which was to shape the destiny of those who would follow irrevocably.

The fashioning of the canoe Te Arawa with its eventual launch accompanied by both tohunga and kaihautu Ngatoroirangi, and Tamatekapua respectively, led to the migration of the peoples of the Arawa canoe to the shores of Aotearoa. Those who accompanied these great leaders on the canoe Te Arawa also played a leading role in the settlement of the coastal areas and hinterland of Te Ika a Maui (The North Island).

The journey was eventful. However it was the enduring love of Ngatoroirangi for Kearoa his wife, that withstood the storm of her liaison with Tamatekapua, and which ultimately secured the safe arrival of the Te Arawa canoe and its occupants to Aotearoa, notwithstanding the summonsing of the wrath of the gods brought about by the powers of Ngatoroirangi in seeking retribution against Tamatekapua’s deceptions by despatching the Te Arawa canoe to Te Korokoro o te Parata.

Lead from the beginning
Prom the fountain of existence
What, what
Who, who
Divine, divine,
Demigod, demigod
Puhourangi from
you Ohomairangi
Man man
It is, it is, so be it

This the tribe Ohomairangi
residing at that Paradise Rangiatea
The thought became
to float on the crest
of the ocean, to follow the wake
that moved and landed
Kupe at Aotearoa

Very crowded the land
became with people
Battles of Tumatauenga
became constant
Lead to the below
Lead to the above
To the earth to the sky,
to give life

Enter the virgin forest with axes
strike to the sky! stand to the grove!
edged from the earth!
thunder stone from the water
tied to the sky
tied to the earth
from the earth.
Take up the axes,
Whose are these axes
They belong to the Great Divinity
They belong to Whakataupotiki

Fall that which is permitted to the
ground
An ancient concern your concern
Tane
The life giving water
These you have set
Both big and tall
reaching out to the world of light
Thus the statement of
Tia make ready a
place for the chips and
the ashes of these timbers
Chip thinly thus the canoe
was hewed out

From the world of the
forest to the clouds
of the sky this the canoe
a canoe of ancient
a canoe of demigod
a canoe of divine
a canoe of sky
a canoe of moving tide
a set raised for Tamatekapua
a canoe drawn from the forest
a canoe drawn from the sky
a canoe to traverse the ocean
and Tangaroa to the calm below

Ngatoroirangi set the
course for the canoe
now named Te Arawa (shark)
submerge to Tangaroa Supreme
Force
to steadfastly hang on to
Venus of Rehua Venus
when it sides with the Milky Way
Launch the canoe to the tide
and be sure it wins land
at its destination

Go all of you follow
the ocean trail of Kupe
Consume the teaching
of the high priest of
the school of learning
Use the earth as a
cloak of warmth
Let the sky hover eternal
Farewell and do not
forget us the saddened people
Ngati Ohomairangi

The High Priest
Ngatoroirangi came quickly to
terms with the Divine Guardians
of the universe
to guide the canoe to its destination
He set the bow to Venus
by the Milky Way
No clearer course of
Te Arawa as it rode
the crest of the ocean

Time passed as they
crossed the ocean
Tamatekapua forced
an affair with Kearoa
the wife of the
High Priest Ngatoroirangi
in his fury he called upon
the Divine Guardian of
the winds Tawhirimatea
Raise your howling winds
to gather to this point
to swirl to swirl
with fury with fury

By way of the jaws
of the whirlpool Parata
to the throat descended Te Arawa
The sky Let forth all its fury
Ngatoroirangi now
called the Divine
Guardian of the deep
Tangaroa to create
mountainous waves
Heed what you see, heed what you
hear Down to the throat of the
Whirlpool Parata

The canoe swirled
into the throat of
the whirlpool Parata
almost to fall into
the deep of Tangaroa
over the side into
the water went some
of the food, goods
except the food basket of
Whakaotirangi
then the High Priest
sighted his wife Kearoa
in her plight and
became concerned

The High Priest because
of his concern for
his wife Kearoa
turned to the Divine
Guardians to calm
the sky and the ocean
Thus Te Arawa came
out of the whirlpool Parata
and set its course
to its destination
Whence the people were happy

From Rangiatea to Tahiti
Thence to Rarotonga and thence
to Whangaparaoa from there
to Rangitoto and to the harbour of
Waitemata
round the point at
Moehau to Te Awa a te Atua at
Matata and back to Maketu known
as the bridge of the nose of
Tamatekapua
and so settled
the people wept
in joy for this land Aotearoa

It is the tribe Ohomairangi
(awaken from the sky)
who came on the canoe
Te Arawa
they landed
and settled at Maketu
by the sea
they multiplied and scattered
over the land from Maketu to Taupo
The descendants of those early
forebears
settled in Rotorua and are there to
this day

The fact that Tamatekapua commanded the canoe Te Arawa from Hawaiki to Aotearoa landing at and occupying Maketu34 reverberates throughout the many realms that the peoples of Te Arawa have touched. His temerity and ingenuity and that of his younger brother Whakaturia knew no boundaries as the history of Te Arawa recalls. Their roles in acquiring the breadfruit of Uenuku, in the use of stilts by Tamatekapua to rescue his younger from Uenuku’s revenge, in engaging his elder Tia to build the canoe to be called Te Arawa, in pre-empting Ngatoroirangi’s original intention to voyage on the canoe Tainui so that he would have the most powerful of High Priests as part of his contingent on the canoe Te Arawa, in engaging in an inappropriate affair with the wife of the High Priest, in ensuring Whakaotirangi came on the canoe Te Arawa, in voyaging to other parts of Te Ika a Maui on the canoe Te Arawa thereby naming places visited by him and finally by his descendants occupying all of the land from Maketu through to Taupo all examples of the audacity of one unbounded by convention.

One only has to look at the stories about Tamatekapua to realise that many of the attributes he had are still prevalent among Te Arawa (men) today. There is the cheek and ingenuity of using stilts to steal the breadfruit of the Tohunga Uenuku and the lover of the Tohunga Ngatoroirangi; there is the passion and valour of rushing to Whakaturia’s rescue and engineering Ngati Ohomairangi’s subsequent migration to Aotearoa; there is the mischief and amorous nature of the numerous illicit affairs he had and the rippling effects of those affairs that he left in his wake.

With Ngatoroirangi and Tia secure within the realms of the waka you have the more serious tohunga aspects cemented within the evolving peoples of Arawa, conducting protocols properly; appropriate behaviour – somewhat similar to a tuakana role as opposed to  that of a teina.

Whakaue Kaipapa is descended eight generations from Tamatekapua. His genealogy is as follows:

Tamatekapua

Kahumatamomoe

Tawakemoetahanga

Uenukumairarotonga

Rangitihi

Tūhourangi

Uenukukōpako

Whakaue

By Whakaue’s time he occupied lands at Rotorua and had established his mana as others of the descendants of the children of his ancestor Rangitihi three generations above him had done.

Whakaue was, through Uenukukopako, a great grandson of Rangitihi. His grandfather Tuhourangi together with Tuhourangi’s older siblings were known as “nga pumanawa e waru o Rangitihi”. The genealogy showing the “eight beating hearts” of Rangitihi is as follows:

The other famous proverb of Rangitihi identifies the well known trait of Te Arawa as to its stubbornness in the  face of adversity

"The illustrious head of Rangitihi which was  bound with the akatea vine."

All of Rangitihi’s children or their children in turn were the founders of important descent groups of the Rotorua area. Whakaue like his father Uenukukopako was one of those.

During the time of Uenukukopako both he and his cousin Rangiteaorere conquered Te Motu Tapu a Tinirau (Mokoia Island) which was the key to the control of the lake of Rotoruanuiakahumatamomoe (Lake Rotorua). The incident, the eating of Uenukukopako’s dog, which led to the invasion of Mokoia Island was but an excuse to prevail upon those living on the island and thus allowing Uenukukopako and his descendants, amongst others including Rangiteaorere, to begin both the occupation and control of the Rotorua area particularly around Lake Rotorua which for many generations the peoples of Uenukukopako have enjoyed to the present day.

Uenukukopako’s descendants in particular Whakaue lived on Mokoia Island and he began his occupation of the western shores of Lake Rotorua at Te Weriweri Pa, a kainga established by Uenukukopako, at Waikimihia, Waiteti. Whakaue also occupied areas at Kawaha and Te Koutu between Waiteti and Ohinemutu.

His habitation patterns and those of his children followed the expanse of influence obtained principally through the conquests of Uenukukopako and his sons which were then cemented by relationships that endure. Tuteaiti and Ngararanui took occupation of Te Weriweri Pa and this area even today is recognised as that of the hapu of Ngati Tuteaiti and Ngati Ngararanui. Their older brother Tawakaheimoa moved further north to occupy the Awahou area becoming the eponymous ancestor of Ngati Rangiwewehi who occupied Pa sites at Puhirua and later Tarimano. The genealogy that follows shows the children of Whakaue including Tutanekai:

Whakaue

The occupation of Mokoia Island by Whakaue and his descendants continued in to the era of his favoured son Tutanekai who, as is well known, married Hinemoa the daughter of Umukaria. Hinemoa was wooed to Mokoia Island by Tutanekai and his musical charms, against the wishes of Umukaria, but notwithstanding the initial opposition the resulting marriage, finally approved by both Whakaue and Umukaria, cemented a strong bond and association between these two groupings which could not be broken until as late as the 1800 battle at Te Puia where, in that encounter, Ngati Whakaue and its hapu seized the western shores of Lake Rotorua including Pukeroa and Ohinemutu.

At the time of Tutanekai the settlement patterns saw Pikiao, erstwhile settlers on the eastern shores of Lake Rotorua, move to occupy the Rotoiti region after being despatched by conquest initially to the Tarawera region. The areas occupied by Pikiao became subsequently controlled by Tuhourangi and Wahiao who began their occupation of the southern lakes area after the conquest of Te Aorauru by both Whakaue and Wahiao. Tutanekai and his descendants became known as “Te Hope o Tutanekai” settling in the immediate environs of  Lake Rotorua.

The capacity to love, as demonstrated in the story of Tutanekai and Hinemoa, is an enduring characteristic of Tutanekai’s progeny. Time and again the ability for such bonds of love to rise above what was deemed to be right at the time is also demonstrated. The love and acceptance of Tutanekai by his father Whakaue, despite the question of whether or not he was actually Tuwharetoa’s son; Tunohopu’s unquestioned love for his son Taioperua which drove him to retrieve him from Tamamutu and Ngati Tuwharetoa; and the love of Umukaria for his daughter Hinemoa that rose above the hurts of her disobedience, are all examples of the flame of passion that burns within the being of the progeny of Whakaue and illustrates that the men and women of Ngati Whakaue are not  bounded by convention.

The occupation of Mokoia Island by Whakaue is recognised in the lament to Te Kuruotemarama, the son of Mokonuiarangi, who was captured during the fall of Mokoia Island during the musket raids of the northern tribes to the Rotorua region.

Like beached fish on the shore Were the fallen tattooed brigade Of Ngati Whakaue at Kaiweka

Tutanekai and his descendants were recognised as living on Mokoia Island by the fact of the residence of his son Te Ariariterangi there, and at Kawaha by the fact of the permanent residence there of his sons Tunohopu and Panuiomarama. It was thus said that the influence of Tutanekai extended from the most north western boundary marker at Waikimihia extending as  far as Kawaha.

It is during the times of Tutanekai that the name Ngati Whakaue became both prominent and recognised as the umbrella title covering the independent entity of Whakaue’s, and more particularly  Tutanekai’s descendants.

The ability to fight and defend themselves and their people is a renowned characteristic of Nga Hope o Tutanekai. Tutanekai’s conquests were not limited to the Rotorua region but, in a combined effort with Wahiao, extended as far as Tarawera, with Wahiao at that time forming an alliance/axis with Tuhourangi which led to the eventual shattering of the early alliance between Tutanekai and Wahiao when Tutanekai’s son, Te Whatumairangi, was killed by way of revenge by Wahiao for his illicit affair with Uruhina, Wahiao’s wife. In turn Te Hurungaoterangi, son of Te Whatumairangi, avenged his father’s death by killing Wahiao.

The Pa sites occupied by Ngati Whakaue included Weriweri, Te Whetengu at Tihiotonga, Pukepoto, Te Koutu, Kawaha, Mataipuku, Pukeroa and Ohinemutu.

The genealogy of Tutanekai and his descendants is outlined as follows showing the major ancestors after whom, in particular, the now well known “Koromatua hapu” of Ngati Whakaue are named: